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During the holiday, not only would slaves celebrate with drumming and dancing, but also plot insurrection and flight.The most famous of these was that of Ocoyta, founded around 1770 by the legendary Guillermo Rivas.There has also been some intersection with indigenous cosmological systems.The latter were escaped slaves who, like all Blacks fleeing non-Spanish-speaking islands, were granted freedom upon arrival in Venezuela if they accepted baptism."Pardo" was used in colonial times to refer to freed slaves, or those of mixed Euro-African-Indigenous background.Yet underlying this ideology is a policy of blanqueamiento, or "whitening that has encouraged both the physical and cultural assimilation of Afro-Venezuelans into a Euro-dominated mainstream.These slaves belonged to various ethnicities from present-day."Negro" is the most general term of reference; "Moreno" refers to darker-skinned people, and "Mulatto" refers to lighter-skinned people, usually of mixed European-African heritage."Criollo which retains its colonial meaning of "being born in Venezuela does not indicate any racial or ethnic affiliation.The tamunango is found in Afro-Venezuelan communities in the interior.Cimarrón groups conducted raids on plantations, assisted in the escapes of other slaves, and participated in contraband trading.These beings are also responsible for the deaths and disappearance of various people.Since colonial times, magico-religious societies have also existed, employing various forms of brujería, or "witchcraft".The decline in slavery continued throughout the War of Independence when, at its conclusion in 1821, the "Ley de vientre" was passed, stating that all children born, whether of slave or free parents, were automatically free.Afro-Venezuelans spanish : Afrovenezolanos ) are, venezuelans of, african descent.
In various regions of Venezuela, different religious holidays have emerged as important local celebrations.
Slave rebellions edit The history of slave revolts in Venezuela, both in the form of runaway communities and mutiny, began quite early.With the declaration of independence in 1810, all trafficking in slaves was outlawed.A major landowner himself, Bolívar freed 1,000 of his own slaves, and in 1819 recruited 5,000 slaves into his army.Encyclopædia Britannica estimates that one-tenth of Venezuelans (3 million) have relatively pure Sub-Saharan African ancestry.Public festivals such as the Fiesta de San Juan have emerged as focal points in the reappropriation of Afro-Venezuelan culture, articulating current transformations in a living tradition of cimarronaje (resistance to the dominant culture, consciousness of being marginal).Western Hemisphere by, john Hawkins and, sir Francis Drake during the Atlantic slave trade.In turn, this stylistic complex is usually associated with a specific fiesta or celebration.Quitiplas are also prominent in Barlovento.A statue of El Negro Primero stands in the Plaza Carabobo in Caracasthe only statue commemorating a Black in all Venezuela.Location edit Afro-Venezuelans can be found all over the country, but the largest Afro-Venezuelan population is located in the Barlovento region about 100 kilometers east of Caracas.In particular, the notorious royalist battalion of General José Tomás Boves attracted many slave soldiers.
José Antonio Paéz, a key figure in Venezuelan independence, led an army of Blacks from the llanos (plains).
Generally, drums use specific rhythmic patterns to accompany specific song or dance forms; hence, drums, rhythms, and stylistic forms may all be designated by the same name.
He developed an army of 1,500 slaves, Blacks, Mulattos, Zambos and Indigenous peoples to attack colonial establishments.
Religious practitioners edit Organized as they were around patron saints, Black cofradías were not simply social organizations, but also religious ones.